Unprecedented DMSP Concentrations in a Massive Dinoflagellate Bloom in Monterey Bay, CA
Kiene, R. P., B. Nowinski, K. Esson, C. Preston, R. Marin III., J. Birch, C. Scholin, J. Ryan, and M. A. Moran
The organic sulfur compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is synthesized by numerous species of marine phytoplankton, and its volatile degradation products are a major source of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. A massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea occurred in Monterey Bay, CA, USA,in the fall of 2016 and led to exceptionally high seawater DMSP concentrations that peaked at 4240 nM. Bacterial consumption rates showed that only a small fraction of the DMSP standing-stock flowed through the dissolved DMSP pool per day, contributing to the high DMSP concentrations and creating conditions conducive to production of dimethylsulfide (DMS). Conservative calculations of DMS yield from this persistent A. sanguinea bloom suggest substantial regional-scale inputs of DMS-sulfur to the atmosphere. Other recently reported major coastal blooms of A. sanguinea, along with indications that this species may benefit from climate change conditions, reveal a mechanism that could alter oceanic contributions to atmospheric sulfur pools.